Anti-adhesion strategies to block infection
Anti-adhesive strategies are aimed at blocking the initial binding of microbes to human skin and mucosal tissues, to prevent infection in an early stage. Anti-adhesive therapies do not affect the viability of microbes and do not destroy the healthy microbiota. Another advantage of this mode of action is the absence of selective pressure, which minimizes the risk of developing microbial resistance. Therefore, anti-adhesive agents can offer an interesting alternative approach to antibiotic treatment of common health problems related to skin and mucosal microbial infections.
The human mucus layer uses anti-adhesion polysaccharides to prevent microbes binding to host tissues
The mucus layer that covers human epithelial surfaces is well-known for its natural anti-adhesion activity to prevent binding of microbes to the underlying epithelial cells. Our mucosal surfaces are a humid and warm environment that supports microbial growth. The digestive tract, the vagina and the mouth all contain extensive microbiota. To minimize direct contact with microbes, mucosal epithelial cells produce mucus that contains anti-adhesive polysaccharides. These polysaccharides trap microbes and prevent them from reaching the epithelial surface.
Natural polysaccharide anti-adhesion strategies
Polysaccharides from several natural sources are known for their anti-adhesion activity, with a mode of action similar to that described above for mucins. The protective effect of anti-adhesive polysaccharides has been demonstrated convincingly in a variety of in vitro studies and in vivo models with different pathogenic microbes. Therefore, anti-adhesive strategies offer a very promising, novel, anti-microbial approach to be used as alternatives to antibiotics.
2QR-complex anti-adhesive mode of action
The negatively charged polysaccharide chains refined from the Aloe Vera Barbadensis leaf gel revealed an anti-adhesive mode of action. From this discovery in the late 90’s, 2QR Research BV developed 2QR-complex: our innovative, patented ingredient. 2QR-complex has a broad spectrum of efficacy and does not damage the host’s tissues or the healthy balance of the microbiota.
A new discovery was made just a few years ago. A variety of options for processing and manipulating the polysaccharides in Aloe were tested and many different polysaccharide samples were analyzed. The new polysaccharides are uncharged, different structure and lighter weight. The effect was that the microbes started sticking to the new polysaccharides and within seconds they were aggregating into large clusters.
A great advantage of this clustering effect over the antiadhesive effect is that it is already effective even with only a few connections to the adhesins on the pathogens. If only 1 out of 10 adhesins connects then they can already start interconnecting and form clusters. On top of this the clustering effect takes place rapidly, within mere seconds.
2FX – Pure synergy
In the years since this discovery we have been working on further experiments and also analyzed the polysaccharide structures that were responsible for this effect. We were able to determine their size, range and structure and have learned how to manipulate and process them from Aloe polysaccharides. In 2021 this unique research project resulted in the application for worldwide patent rights.
We have chosen to combine our two different polysaccharide components – the 2QR and the newly manipulated polysaccharides – into one powerful ingredient; 2FX (phonetic for Two Effects).
This is only logical since they can be produced in the same process and are complementary. Indeed there are two different effects in this natural complex of polysaccharides that work in synergy. The first effect is the anti-adhesive effect of the negatively charged 2QR polysaccharides. The second effect is the microbial clustering effect of our new discovery. By combining these two powerful characteristics we create synergy in the Mode of Action. Based on this synergy we offer one ingredient as an active basis for a variety of products that are effective in treating microbial problems and preventing infection.
By enhancing and enriching the Aloe polysaccharides in our unique molecular processing installations, a powerful synergetic complex has been developed that combines 2 specific antimicrobial effects into the innovation of 2FX.
2FX-complex prevents adhesion of pathogens and restores the healthy microbiota
• Microbes use adhesins to bind to polysaccharide structures on receptors of human cells.
• Polysaccharides with structures similar to those of human cells can bind to microbes, and act as decoy to block interaction of harmful microbes with human cells.
• In collaboration between BioClin and the Free University in Amsterdam, the 2FX-complex was identified as a natural and safe anti-adhesion polysaccharide fraction derived from gel of Aloe Barbadensis leaves.
• The high diversity of polysaccharide structures in the patented 2FX-complex results in excellent anti-adhesion activity against many harmful microbial pathogens 1.
• 2FX-complex blocks the adhesion of pathogenic microbes to human tissues but does not affect the growth of beneficial commensal microbes 2.Therefore, 2FX-complex treats and prevents binding of harmful microbes to human tissues and creates a situation with competitive advantage for commensals and corrects and restores the healthy microbiota.
• 2FX-complex is harmless for human cells and tissues; it does not exert any chemical, metabolic or immunological response in the host tissues 3–5.
1. Van Dijk, W., Goedbloed, A. F. & Koumans, F. J. R. Negatively charged polysaccharide derivable from Aloe Vera. Publication Date:29.09.2004Filing Date:23.12.2002. EP1461361. 1, 1–24 (2002).
2. Kwakman, P. H. S. Negatively charged polysaccharides complex does not affect microbial viability. Document on file. (2015).
3. Celi, P. Method of fractionation of Aloe vera extract on basis of molecular weight and charge: Biological activity of the different fractions. Document on file.(2000).
4. Van Dijk, W., Goedbloed, A. F. & Koumans, F. J. R. Negatively charged polysaccharide derivable from Aloe Vera. Freepatentsonline: EP20010205253 Publication Date: 07/02/2003 Filing Date: 12/27/2001. (2001).
5. Van Dijk, W. Further characterization of negatively charged polysaccharides isolated from concentrated Aloe vera gel with regard to antibacterial properties and molecular structure. Document on file. (2006).